Data is a description of facts from a certain viewpoint organized for analysis or used to reason or make decisions. They can be derived from scientific or industrial experiments. In other words, it is a description (e.g. measurement) of facts through a comparison with something known (size, color; strength). Data acquisition is limited by examples to compare and selected measurement units (e.g. how does one measure a personal value?). It is important to underline that the same facts can be described by different datasets.

Context: Components of knowledge acquisition process / Researching Future

Decision Maker

Decision maker is someone entrusted in an organization to make financial or organizational decisions using the process described in “Decision making”. Sometimes, the final decision may be made by one or a group of decision makers (possibly a committee).

Context: FORMAT methodology

Description of Manufacturing Process (MP) “AS IS”

Working description(s) of a currently existing industrial process.

Context: Stage M / FORMAT methodology

Decision making

Decision making can be regarded as the cognitive process resulting in the selection of a course of action among several alternative scenarios. Every decision making process produces a final choice (James Reason, 1990). The output can be an action or an opinion of choice [Wikipedia].

Context: FORMAT methodology

DIKW Hierarchy (Data – Information – Knowledge – Wisdom)

All the symbols representing a property of entities, as well as events, should be considered as Data. It turns into Information once such data gets selected according to the relevance of its content. Therefore, the terms hierarchy is not properly used in this context, since the relationship that binds Data and Information is not merely “structural”. In other word such a transformation concerns a process of inference. Knowledge, indeed, is represented as the result of the transformation of Information into know-how, which means that the relevant content is also interpreted and organized in a way that is reusable according to the meaning that has been conferred to Information. As well, also the relationship between Information and Knowledge is not strictly hierarchical, rather relational. According to this definition of Knowledge, it is evident that this is the level that allows to transfer elsewhere some content organized according to the meaning of a previous interpretation. At last, Wisdom pertains to the sphere of judgement and it is in relationship to Knowledge because it assigns values to the know-how (Ackoff, 1989).


Context: Knowledge Management


A driver is something such as a need, rule, law, or policy that makes it possible and probable for something to happen or be achieved; the factors that reveal and accelerate (pull & push) the development of a certain system along evolution. Drivers can provide necessary resources for solving problems.

A factor which causes a particular phenomenon to happen or develop


Context: FORMAT methodology / Drivers & Barriers